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about the age of sixteen.   The task that now confronted him was
the study of the art of public speech.   Since the attainment of
proficiency in that art required not merely a competent know-
ledge of the theory of rhetoric as it had been developed by Aristotle
and his successors of various schools, but perfect mastery of all
the devices of the orator and of all the subjects with which the
orator might have to deal in the practice of his profession, the
youth had to undergo a long and laborious training,   Undep his
master's supervision he had to study and practise the various
forms of oratory needed in private and public life,   In the teach-
ing of these, as we see from Cicero's treatise on the subject—
note, for example, the De Oratore, i, 31—the schools of rhetoric
had evolved a highly elaborate technique.  The outline, instanced
by Professor Jullien, for an exercise on a chria, or maxim, as part
of the training in declamation illustrates the general procedure :
" (i) Praise of the author of the saying or deed.   (2) Paraphrase,
in which the thought underlying the maxim was taken up and
presented in an expanded form.    (3) Motive, in which the
fundamental truth of the thought was explained.  (4) Examination
of the contrary view and its consequences.   (5) Comparison.
(6) Example, commonly furnished by some great man.   (7) Evi-
dence  drawn from  ancient  authors  in  confirmation  of the
thought.   (8) Conclusion; most frequently in the form of an

It will be seen that Roman education, though a derivative
form of Greek education, differed from it in many ways. The
cycle of school studies was much narrower. Gymnastics, dancing,
music, science and philosophy, so far as they were cultivated at
all, were either reduced to mere side pursuits incidental to the
study of literature and oratory, or were taught privately outside
the schools. Even in the literary studies, where the Greek
precedent was most closely followed, there was a utilitarian
spirit, which showed itself in the subordination of all forms of
knowledge and sjdll to the making of the good citizen and the
good orator, and which led to the undue exaltation of the techni-
calities of grammar and rhetoric as of most account for this
practical end. It was probably a vague consciousness of this
limitation of the schools that made many of the most cultured of
the young Romans go to finish their education in Athens or some

* LesProfesseurs de Litt&rature dans I'ancienne Rome, p. 302,